ging volumes of research in collocation learning have been published in the last 20 years or so, but not all of them have reported sufficient collocation knowledge among EFL learners and have rarely embraced dedicated studies investigating into the impact of using Noticing-Reformulation technique on collocation knowledge and retention.
The role of memory is also crucial in any kind of learning and collocation learning and retention are no exception. According to the above-described continuum, learning of collocations is not linear. Learners, without fail, forget some components of knowledge. Hence, there should be tasks which can encourage long-term retention of collocations.
On the basis of available research results, it is probably safe to say that not everyone would deny the significance of noticing in converting input into intake. Regarding the aforementioned issue, learning and retention of collocations have always sustained defeat. When obtaining new information, most of it is forgotten immediately, after which the process of forgetting slows down.
All in all, traditional teaching of collocations seems to be a slow and inefficient process which does not necessarily imply long-term retention. Explicit vocabulary teaching via Noticing-Reformulation technique may be an alternative to traditional instruction. Because it might be able to ensure that lexical development in the target language follows a systematic and logical path. However, the contribution and effect of Noticing-Reformulation technique on collocation learning is still under dispute.
One of the chief assumptions of my study is that a teacher’s knowledge of how to teach collocations is also a very influential factor in foreign language vocabulary learning and retention. It is also a criterion which should not be eliminated from the process of learning. It has become apparent, on the basis of the above-mentioned argumentations, to all subjects involved in the processes of language learning, that collocation learning cannot rely on implicit incidental learning or traditional teaching. Here I shall mention that my proposal does not contradict the findings of learners’ autonomy in language learning. I only see when our students fail to learn, the balance of failure is shifted one way and only rests on our students’ shoulders. The advocates of this view- not disputing the significance of acquiring grammatical- syntactical structures- have begun to insist on more explicit collocation teaching.
The underlying issue is that some scholars argue the heart of language comprehension and use is the lexicon. Nearly the same idea was shared by Lewis (2000) who expresses that “the single most important task facing language learners is acquiring a sufficient large vocabulary”.
Many higher education faculty members and EFL teachers find themselves with the opportunity or requirement to teach English collocations, but how can they design and develop an effective way to develop the skill for teaching them? It is difficult to find an answer to this question, due to a lack of a clear theoretical framework to guide instructional interventions. Accordingly, teaching collocations has always been disregarded in EFL classes. English Collocations in Use (McCarthy &O’Dell) for self-study and classroom use is sometimes used for pedagogic treatment of collocations in the classroom, however, they haven’t reached a consensus on how to teach it in a more effective way. Learners, meanwhile, often use the aforementioned book for self-study, but the net results may not always be a success. I want to teach collocations in a way which can potentially help students focus their attention on language lexicon.
I therefore sat Noticing-Reformulation tasks to increase the likelihood that they would attend to lexicon in both input and their foreign language output. I hoped that this attention would lead to learning and retention of collocations with their subsequent use in learners’ language production. In order to perceive how this may come about, I decided to illustrate and consider the ideas of noticing and intake in second language acquisition, foreign language learning theories and in classroom studies.
1.1. Theoretical Framework
Findings of the researches conducted in the domains of cognitive psychology and psycholinguistics had reverberations in the area of foreign language vocabulary acquisition. In this section, I first begin by outlining the basic components of a theoretical framework for understanding the interdependent nature of noticing and learning. Then I briefly lay out the literature on Noticing in EFL and SLA studies to situate my study within research in the realm of those studies which have investigated different factors and variables affected by noticing. At last, I am going to discuss the major underpinnings of second and foreign language collocation research.
At the outset, it is of prime significance to mention that the theoretical underpinning of this study anchors in Schmidt’s (1990) perspectives of learning which emphasize the crucial role of Noticing that roots in cognitive psychology in the process of learning.
In one perspective, Schmidt (1990, p. 132) argues that “noticing thus refers to private experience, although noticing can be operationally defined as availability for verbal report, subject to certain conditions”. He also considers noticing a necessary and sufficient condition for learning and rejects subliminal learning. Such a claim may imply that what is learnt through noticing is expected to be converted into intake by the individual.
Inspired by cognitive psychologists’ interest in the studies of consciousness, but asserting a substantial role for attention in learning, staunch advocates of noticing and its dissenters narrowed their focus down to the study of noticing in foreign and second language learning. Many of the studies have grounded their framework on manifold of premises concerning how individuals orient their attention to a particular stimulus and notice a particular feature in the input.
For instance, Schmidt (1990, p.129) summarizes the psychological research on the topic of consciousness and investigates three main questions in second language learning concerning the role of consciousness. The questions are:
” whether conscious awareness at the level of ‘noticing’ is necessary for language learning ( the subliminal learning issue); whether it is necessary to consciously ‘pay attention in order to learn (the incidental learning issue); and whether learner hypotheses based on input are the result of conscious insight and understanding or an unconscious process of abstraction”.
Beginning with these premises, the first generation of cognitive psychologists and scholars gave their analytic attention to describing learning under conscious and unconscious conditions. Findings from these scholarly works have revealed both support and opposition to the role of consciousness in language learning. Evidence